Out of all cases of cervical cancer, rates of HPV-negative cervical cancer are relatively low.
"Five to 11 percent of cervical cancers are reported to be HPV-negative," said John Diaz, M.D., chief of gynecologic oncology at Miami Cancer Institute.
Little is known about what causes this type of cervical cancer. Stephanie Blank, director of gynecologic oncology for the Mount Sinai Health System in New York, explained that genetics may play a role.
"There are some rare genetic syndromes associated with rare cervical cancers and some mutations that may be the reason," Blank said.
Diaz explained that the prevalence of HPV-negative cervical cancer depends on the specific anatomy of the malignant lesion.
The 2021 study states that most researchers consider this type of cancer to be caused by mutations in tumor-associated genes, such as TP53, PIK3CA and CDKN2A. In other cases, HPV-negative cervical cancers could not be distinguished from endometrial carcinomas or distant metastases of other HPV-negative tumors.