When you hear the words "high PSA," chances are your mind goes to one place and one place only: cancer. While it's true that an elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level can indicate the presence of cancer in the prostate gland, it's not a guarantee.

First, some background: PSA is a protein created by normal and cancerous cells in the prostate, so when you go to the doctor for prostate cancer screening, you'll get a PSA test to detect levels of this particular antigen in the blood.

In general, a PSA level is considered high when it's above 4 nanograms per milliliter (ng/mL), explained Mohamed H. Kamel, M.D., a professor of clinical surgery at the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine and a UC Health oncologist.

Many noncancerous causes, including getting older, can elevate PSA levels. Additionally, what