"We can't wait to meet our son," said Nicole, a 33-year-old from New Hampshire who is having a child with her wife of eight years. After bonding over the mutual desire to have children and raising their nieces and nephews, the two decided to try having kids of their own. Carolann, Nicole's wife, said, "But being a lesbian couple, trying to plan a family is extremely frustrating."

Prospective queer families often must navigate extra challenges to have children, including biased health insurance regulations, the lack of nationwide nondiscrimination protections, outdated understandings of infertility, and the high cost of adoption, foster care and assisted reproductive technology, according to a 2018 report from the LGBTQ Family Building Survey.

A year after deciding to try for children, Nicole and Carolann hit a major roadblock. Carolann, who'd always wanted to carry her own children, was diagnosed with cancer and needed a full hysterectomy. Nicole