Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a nonmalignant enlargement of the prostate gland that occurs when the gland's cells start to multiply, causing swelling that interferes with urine flow. Though benign prostatic hyperplasia is not the same as prostate cancer and does not increase cancer risk, its acute symptoms can negatively impact a man's quality of life.

BPH causes and risk factors

Men produce testosterone and low levels of estrogen. As they age, the level of active testosterone decreases as estrogen increases. Some studies suggest BPH may occur because of higher estrogen levels that impact the rate of cell growth within the prostate.

Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) can also contribute to benign prostatic hyperplasia. DHT is a male hormone that plays a key role in prostate growth and development. An accumulation of scientific evidence suggests that even with a significant drop in blood testosterone levels,