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Radiation therapy

A cancer treatment in which high-powered energy beams such as X-rays and protons are used to kill cancer cells.

Radical mastectomy

An extensive, rarely performed surgery used to treat breast cancer in which the entire breast, underarm lymph nodes and pectoral muscles are removed.

Radical orchiectomy

A surgical procedure used to treat both early- and late-stage testicular cancer that involves removing the infected testicle and mass through a small incision in the groin.

Refractory period

The span of time after having an orgasm during which a person is not sexually responsive.

Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection

A surgery that is sometimes offered to patients with early-stage testicular cancer to lower their risk of recurrence by removing lymph nodes in the abdomen.


A surgical procedure in which the shape of the nose is reshaped or reconstructed.