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Calcium channel blockers

A class of drugs that lower blood pressure by preventing calcium from entering the cells of the heart and arteries.

Candida albicans

The fungus responsible for most vaginal yeast infections.

Capsular contracture

A response of the immune system to foreign materials in the body in which a protective scar forms and gets thicker and harder.

Catheter-directed embolization

A procedure that uses a catheter to place tiny coils and/or a liquid substance in a blood vessel to divert blood flow away from a varicocele, which is an enlarged vein in the scrotum.


A process in which a tube known as a urinary catheter is inserted into the bladder through the urethra to help drain urine.


A unit for measuring genetic linkage between two or more people.

Central nervous system (CNS)

The part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and the spinal cord which controls most functions of the body and mind.

Cervical cancer

A type of cancer that originates in the cells of the cervix, which is the lower part of the uterus that connects to the vagina; most cervical cancer is caused by various strains of a sexually transmitted infection called the human papillomavirus (HPV).

Cesarean section (C-section)

A surgery conducted on a woman’s abdomen to help deliver a baby.


A drug treatment used to shrink or kill cancer cells.


A birth defect in which the penis is bent during an erection.

Chronic bacterial prostatitis

A rare form of prostatitis in which the prostate gets infected on a recurring basis, causing inflammation and swelling of the prostate.

Chronic nonbacterial prostatitis

A condition that causes long-term pain in the prostate, lower urinary tract or genital area, sometimes referred to as chronic pelvic pain syndrome.


The surgical removal of the foreskin, which covers the tip of the penis.


A female sex organ and erogenous zone located under the clitoral hood and above the urethra and extending internally.

Clomiphene citrate

A common fertility drug that is taken orally and stimulates the growth of an ovarian follicle containing an egg.

Cognitive behavioral therapy

A form of talk therapy in which individuals discuss their concerns with a psychotherapist or therapist over several structured sessions.

Cold knife cone biopsy

A procedure using a scalpel or laser knife to remove a cone-shaped piece of abnormal tissue from the cervix; the tissue is checked for signs of diseases including cervical cancer.

Colorectal cancer

A disease that occurs when cells in either the colon or the rectum begin to mutate and grow out of control; sometimes referred to individually as colon cancer or rectal cancer, depending on the part of the digestive system in which the cancer cells originate.


A procedure in which a doctor uses a lighted magnifying instrument called a colposcope to closely examine the cervix, vagina and vulva for any abnormalities.

Complex fibroadenomas

Solid, noncancerous breast lumps resulting from an overgrowth of cells that continue to grow rapidly and are typically found in older women.

Conventional vasectomy

A procedure in which a surgeon applies a local numbing anesthetic to the scrotum and cuts and seals the vas deferens, the tubes that transport sperm cells from the epididymis during ejaculation.

Corpora cavernosa

Two tubes inside the penis that fill with blood, causing an erection during arousal.

Corpus spongiosum

A column located on the bottom side of the shaft of the penis that surrounds and protects the urethra, the tube through which urine leaves the body.

COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019)

An infectious disease caused by a newly discovered coronavirus.

Cremaster muscle

A muscle that pulls the scrotum closer to the body to keep it warm in cold temperatures.

Crohn’s disease

An inflammatory bowel disease, characterized by inflammation of the digestive tract, which can cause abdominal pain, severe diarrhea, excess gas, fatigue, weight loss and malnutrition.


A procedure in which a thin, wand-like device is inserted into a fibroadenoma and a gas is released to freeze and destroy the tissue.

Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)

A molecule that increases the dilation of blood vessels; responsible for increasing blood flow to the penis during an erection.