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Abdominoplasty (tummy tuck)

A surgery that thins and firms the abdomen through the removal of excess skin and fat from the middle and lower abdomen.


A medical procedure performed to end a pregnancy.

Acute bacterial prostatitis

A relatively rare form of prostatitis that develops rapidly and often occurs in conjunction with a urinary tract infection.

Adenomatous polyps (adenomas)

A precancerous colorectal polyp, or abnormal tissue growth on the lining of the colon or rectum.

Alcohol use disorder

A pattern of alcohol use in which an individual struggles to control their drinking, is preoccupied with alcohol and continues to use it even when it causes problems.


A disorder in which the body’s immune system attacks hair follicles, resulting in hair loss.


A class of drugs that lower blood pressure by keeping the hormone norepinephrine from tightening the muscles in the walls of smaller arteries and veins.

Alzheimer’s disease

A neurodegenerative disease that occurs when an individual has plaques and tangles in the brain that cause dementia and other symptoms.

Amniotic fluid

The clear liquid that surrounds an unborn fetus during pregnancy.


The male equivalent of menopause in which testosterone levels drop but don’t recover; can lead to erectile dysfunction, loss of bone density, reduced libido, insomnia, depression and infertility.

Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors

A class of drugs that relax and widen blood vessels and arteries to increase blood flow, commonly used to treat hypertension and heart failure.

Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs)

A class of drugs that lower blood pressure and improve blood flow by blocking the chemical angiotensin, which narrows blood vessels.


A class of medications used to block the action of histamines, which are chemicals in the body involved in allergic reactions.


A substance that protects cells from the damage caused by free radicals created by oxidation, which play a role in inflammation and disease.

Assisted reproductive technology

Procedures that use donor or non-donor eggs and sperm to create embryos in vitro.

Autonomic nervous system (ANS)

A part of the nervous system that controls muscles of internal organs and glands.


The complete absence of sperm in the fluid ejaculated during orgasm.